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Was a 2-year project of the UC Davis University Library and Zepheira to investigate the future of library technical services, i.e., cataloging and related workflows, in light of modern technology infrastructure and new data models and formats such as (RDA) and BIBFRAME. It was a research agenda and set of activities to advance our community’s understanding of the resource description landscape – the current and desired future state – and begin to develop a roadmap that the library community can reference for planning investments and changes over the coming years. The roadmap should serve as a bridge from MARC land to linked data land and provide intermediate steps for libraries to eventually move away from MARC entirely. PCC is the key to the success of this transition.

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Wikipedia. (viewed 2017-03-14) defines BIBFRAME, also known as the Bibliographic Framework Initiative, initiated by the Library of Congress, as: "a data model for bibliographic description. BIBFRAME was designed to replace the MARC standards, and to use linked data principles to make bibliographic data more useful both within and outside the library community". After extensive testing and analysis in 2016, BIBFRAME 2.0 is now available with a new vocabulary, with new tools and supporting components to follow. More details can be found in LOC's BIBFRAME 2.0 FAQ.

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Frequently asked questions:

BIBFRAME Frequently Asked Questions (viewed May 16, 2017):

General articles:

A Bibliographic Framework for the Digital Age (October 31, 2011):

    • The foundational article that led to the development of BIBFRAME 

BIBRAME see Wikipedia article (viewed May 16, 2017):

BIBFRAME : a basic overview (viewed May 16, 2017):

BIBFRAME: Basics and Resources (viewed May 16, 2017):

BIBFRAME : Bibliographic Framework Initiative (viewed May 16, 2017):

BIBFRAME 2.0 Examples and Notes (viewed May 16, 2017):


BIBFRAME Update Forum at ALA Midwinter Meeting 2017 (viewed May 16, 2017):


BIBFRAME 2.0 Vocabulary (viewed May, 16, 2017):

Linked data : What is linked data?

Linked data is a process designed to automate how resources connect on the web. Developed around several best practices, it's a standard way of using metadata to link pieces of data that represent people, places, ideas, events, and other details in order to automatically generate connections for the user.

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Introduction to linked data:

Introduction to linked data:

Introduction to the Principles of Linked Open Data:

Linked data:

Linked data for cultural heritage. Ed Jones and Michele Seikel, editors. Chicago : ALA Editions, 2016. (Also available online as per an Institute's e-book access)

Linked Data - Connect Distributed Data across the Web

Linked Data - Connect Distributed Data across the Web: Frequently Asked Questions:

Semantic Publishing: Linked data 101. Libraries and linked data #1:  What are linked data?  by David Shotton:

What are Linked Data and Linked Open Data? ONTOTEXT, What are linked data and open linked data?

Videos: Linked data for libraries. Presented by OCLC. "A short introduction to the concepts and technology behind linked data, how it works, and some benefits it brings to libraries." It can be viewed at this link.

En francais:

Données ouvertes liées

Linked data:  How does linked data work?

When used in libraries, archives and museums, linked data helps connect pieces of data that were not previously connected. For example, linked data would allow you to trace a person in a photograph on one website, to a postcard on another completely different site, to a diary on yet another site. Based on technologies of the Semantic Web, it also allows to represent specific relationships between people, places and things, indicating, for instance, whether that person in the picture wrote the diary or was mentioned in it, whether the postcard was sent to them, written by them, or mentioned them. Enriching data through linkages allows you   to connect information from different sources, resulting in increased visibility of collections and linked knowledge. 

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Linked Data: Evolving the Web into a Global Data Space

How to Publish Linked Data on the Web

Semantic Modeling

Linked data: What is linked data for?

Linked data is for connecting and enriching data to facilitate finding content as well as related resources on the Internet. 

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Linked Open Data Start Guide: 3.2. Consuming Linked Open Data (pp. 36):

Linked data for libraries, archives and museums by Seth van Hooland and Ruben Verborgh. Facet, 2014. An overview can be found here..

Semantic Web Case Studies and Use Cases

Linked data: How does linked data work for library catalogues?

How does a library expose/reveal the information in its data repositories and catalogues to the world using linked data?  Bibliographic information in library catalogues are converted from traditional MARC standards to a web standard such as MARC XML.

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Bizer/Cyganiak/Heath 2007 online tutorial: How to publish linked data on the Web.

MARC XML Overview (viewed May 16, 2017):

Transforming Library Metadata into Linked Library Data : Introduction and Review of Linked Data for the Library Community, 2003–2011 / By Virginia Schilling. (viewed May 16, 2017):

Linked data for cultural heritage. Ed Jones and Michele Seikel, editors. Chicago : ALA Editions, 2016. (Also available online as per an Institute's e-book access)

Linked Data in Libraries: Status and Future Direction

Semantic Publishing: Libraries and linked data #3: Encoding bibliographic records in RDF: Posted on by David Shotton:

Linked data: Why would I want to invest time and resources into linked data? What can it do for me?

Linked Data can facilitate a creation of an open, global pool of shared data that can be used and re-used to describe resources, thus facilitating long-standing cooperation between libraries. ( Library Linked Data Incubator Group Final Report, 2011). Linked data can make it easier to connect

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Benefits of the linked data approach:

" ... Linked Data and especially Linked Open Data is sharable, extensible, and easily re-usable. It supports multilingual functionality for data and user services, such as the labeling of concepts identified by a language-agnostic URIs. ... By using Linked Open Data, libraries will create an open, global pool of shared data that can be used and re-used to describe resources, with a limited amount of redundant effort compared with current cataloging processes." (RDT)

The benefits of linking data

Potentials and Benefits of Linked Open Data

Le web sémantique : une nouvelle interopérabilité pour les bibliothèques :

Linked Data vs Linked open data: What is the difference between linked data and linked open data?

Linked data refers to how data is linked together, i.e. meaningful semantic triples. Linked data can be internal in an organization or it can be available on the web for other organizations to connect to and make use of. If the linked data is available for outside use, it is linked open data. 

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Linked open data: the essentials: a quick start guide for decision makers / Florian Bauer and Martin Kaltenbock:

Linking Open Data cloud diagram:

What are Linked Data and Linked Open Data?:

Linked data: What is the difference between linked data for metadata and for digital objects?

Linked data semantically expresses the connection between two different things. While this is most often metadata, it can also be used for digital objects (a digital photograph, a text document, a website, etc) to relate multiple documents together in meaningful ways. Linked data for digital objects also usually connects metadata to digital objects as well as connecting digital objects together.


Metadata: John Smith → was born in → New York City

Digital Object: document → is final version of → draft document

document → is the transcript of → video recording

chapter → is part of → book

Hybrid metadata and digital object: document → was published on → date

document → is part of → correspondence series

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Portland Common Data Model

A Linked Data Journey: Interview with Julie Hardesty

Linked Data for Libraries

Linked data: How is linked data related to digital repositories?

Linked data can be used to model relationships between metadata and digital objects in digital repositories, for use both within those repositories and by external services or other repositories that use the same names (URIs) for the same things. Models such as the Portland Common Data Model (PCDM) encourage use of linked data to aid this modelling through use of URIs. 

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What are the implications for institutional repositories?

Repositories and the Semantic Web

Exposing Institutional Repositories as Linked Data: A case study

Video: Linked Data and Repositories: An Interview with Richard Wallis 

Literals: What are literals?

The Free Dictionary by FARLEX defines literals as: "n. Computers  A letter or symbol that stands for itself as opposed to a feature, function, or entity associated with it in a programming language"

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Literal Triples and Outgoing Links

Problems of the RDF model: Literals:

"Literals are nodes in an RDF graph, used to identify values such as numbers and dates by means of a lexical representation. Literals may be plain or typed: .... Anything represented by a literal could also be represented by a URI, but it is often more convenient or intuitive to use literals. For example, it’s easier to use the literal “7″ (or “7″^^xsd:integer) than,

for instance, the URI ":

Class: RDF::Literal: includes examples for plain, language tagged, explicitly datatyped, and implicitly datatyped literals:

"In RDF 1.1, all literals are typed, including plain literals and language tagged literals. Internally, plain literals are given the xsd:string datatype and language tagged literals are given the rdf:langString datatype. Creating a plain literal, without a datatype or language, will automatically provide the xsd:string datatype; similar for language tagged literals. Note that most serialization formats will remove this datatype. Code which depends on a literal having the xsd:string datatype being different from a plain literal (formally, without a datatype) may break. However note that the #has\_datatype? will continue to return false for plain or language-tagged literals. Boolean, Date, DateTime, Decimal, Double, Integer, Time."

The RDF 1.1 Literal Quiz (Posted on by Richard Cyganiak) on Cygri’s notes on web data:

"The issue with string literals is that RDF currently offers three different ways for doing something as simple as writing down a string: "foo","foo"^^xsd:string,and the rather weird "foo@"^^rdf:PlainLiteral. The working group is trying to fix this. Now here’s a quiz with some RDF trivia questions.  ...."

 W3C  RDF 1.1 Concepts and Abstract Syntax 3.3: Literals. "Literals are used for values such as strings, numbers, and dates" ... :

 RDF: What is RDF?

RDF is short for Resource Description Framework, a group of World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) specifications that provide an entity-relationship syntax to help consistently frame, describe, code metadata, and provide access to and link WWW resources. See Wikipedia.(viewed 2017-03-12) and What is RDF? (Joshua Tauberer, July 2016)

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Resource Description Framework:

RDF 101 (from Cambridge Semantics):

RDF Nuts and bolts (From Cambridge Sematics):

RDF Schema 1.1 (W3C Recommendations (latest version: 25 February 2014):

RDF vs XML (From Cambridge Semantics):

What is RDF?:

World Wide Web Consortium (W3C):

XML RDF <with many examples>:

Semantic web, what is it?

The "semantic web" refers to the process of automating how resources on the web connect to each other, by adding more structured, machine-readable information into our web resources (e.g. webpage encoding and metadata). Linked data is how the semantic web is formed.The semantic web is part of what makes up Web 3.0.


SPARQL is a language used to query data in RDF. SPARQL can be used to search information in linked data.

Triples: What is a triple?

A triple is a statement consisting of two things (a “subject” and an “object”) and the relationship between them (“predicate”). It is the basic building block of linked data.

Each element of the triple is identified by a URI.

For example:

Hamlet (subject)             

Is created by (predicate)

Shakespeare (object)     

URI: What is a URI?

A URI (Uniform Resource Identifier) is the unique web location (or identifier) of a resource, person, place, event, or concept on the World Wide Web.

For example:



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What is 'machine actionable' or 'machine readable' data?

Machine actionable data is data that is structured in such a way that computers can use and interpret it through automation, i.e. programming. Linked data structures semantic hyperlinks as machine actionable data.

1 Comment

  1. The FAQ is excellent, thank  you, All.